Google is designed to crawl and index the Web efficiently and produce much more satisfying search results than existing systems.
This consists of existing custom built applications, otherwise called legacy systems, including existing CRM and ERP packaged applications, and older object-oriented system implementations, as well as business intelligence applications.
The composite layered architecture of an SOA can leverage existing systems and integrate them using service-oriented integration techniques. This is the layer of enterprise components that are responsible for realizing functionality and maintaining the QoS of the exposed services.
These special components are a managed, governed set of enterprise assets that are funded at the enterprise or the business unit level. As enterprise-scale assets, they are responsible for ensuring conformance to SLAs through the application of architectural best practices.
This layer typically uses container-based technologies such as application servers to implement the components, workload management, high-availability, and load balancing. The services the business chooses to fund and expose reside in this layer.
They can be discovered or be statically bound and then invoked, or possibly, choreographed into a composite service. This service exposure layer also provides for the mechanism to take enterprise scale components, business unit specific components, and in some cases, project-specific components, and externalizes a subset of their interfaces in the form of service descriptions.
Thus, the enterprise components provide service realization at runtime using the functionality provided by their interfaces. The interfaces get exported out as service descriptions in this layer, where they are exposed for use. They can exist in isolation or as a composite service.
Business process composition or choreography layer. Compositions and choreographies of services exposed in Layer 3 are defined in this layer. Services are bundled into a flow through orchestration or choreography, and thus act together as a single application.
These applications support specific use cases and business processes. Access or presentation layer. Although this layer is usually out of scope for discussions around a SOA, it is gradually becoming more relevant. I depict it here because there is an increasing convergence of standards, such as Web Services for Remote Portlets Version 2.
You can think of it as a future layer that you need to take into account for future solutions. It is also important to note that SOA decouples the user interface from the components, and that you ultimately need to provide an end-to-end solution from an access channel to a service or composition of services.
This layer enables the integration of services through the introduction of a reliable set of capabilities, such as intelligent routing, protocol mediation, and other transformation mechanisms, often described as the ESB see Resources. On the other hand, an ESB provides a location independent mechanism for integration.
This layer provides the capabilities required to monitor, manage, and maintain QoS such as security, performance, and availability. This is a background process through sense-and-respond mechanisms and tools that monitor the health of SOA applications, including the all important standards implementations of WS-Management and other relevant protocols and standards that implement quality of service for a SOA.
How to approach service-oriented modeling and architecture This section describes how to combine a top-down, business-driven approach with a bottom-up approach, leveraging legacy investments.
Service-oriented modeling approach provides modeling, analysis, design techniques, and activities to define the foundations of a SOA. It helps by defining the elements in each of the SOA layers and making critical architectural decisions at each level.
It does so using a combination of a top-down, business-driven manner of service identification coupled with a stream of work that conducts service identification through leveraging legacy assets and systems.
In this way, high-level business process functionality is externalized for large-grained services. Smaller-grained services -- those that help realize the higher level of services -- are identified by examining the existing legacy functionality and deciding how to create adaptors and wrappers, or componentizing the legacy to externalize the desired functionality often locked within the system.
Finally, using goal-service modeling, you use a cross-sectional approach to cut down the sheer number of candidate services that might already be identified. A more judicious approach would be to first do top-down, then goal-service modeling, and finally bottom-up legacy analysis of existing assets.
This combination of functional business aspirations and leveraging of existing investments in legacy systems provide a potent solution to organizations that want to have quick wins and migrate their enterprise to a modern SOA. Consolidation of software applications through service-oriented integration thus becomes possible.
Service-oriented integration is an evolution of Enterprise Application Integration EAI in which proprietary connections are replaced with standards-based connections over an ESB notion that is location transparent and provides a flexible set of routing, mediation, and transformation capabilities.
I have also shown that to build a SOA, you need to make key architectural decisions about each layer in your SOA, and that your design must reflect a set of business-aligned services and decisions about how they will be composed into applications using choreography.
Unlike your comfortable world of objects, you need to take into account two perspectives in a SOA; that of the service consumer and service provider. The service broker is currently not mainstream and will be covered in a later venue.
You must remember that SOA is more strategic and business-aligned.
Web services are a tactical implementation of SOA. A number of important activities and decisions exist that influence not just integration architecture but enterprise and application architectures as well.
They include the activities from the two key views of the consumer and provider described in Figure 4 below. Activities of service-oriented modeling View image at full size Figure 4 shows the activities that are typically conducted by each of the roles of provider and consumer.The service oriented architecture master thesis University of Wyoming Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering offers tracks in structural service oriented architecture master thesis systems and mechanical systems, leading to a Bachelor of Architectural Engineering.
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